SECTION I: GLOSSARY

Ia – Table of Contents

(In addition to the guide sections listed in the table below and in the navigation bar at the head of each section, this directory also contains an introductory preamble page which you shouldn't need to go back to.)

SECTION SUBSECTIONS
I: GLOSSARY Table of Contents, Notation, Terminology
II: SOUNDS Letters, Syllables, Words
III: NUMBERS Plurals, Person, Counting
IV: NOUNS Gender, Case, Regular Nouns, Irregular Nouns
V: ADJUNCTS Adjectives, Adverbs, Postpositions, Possessives
VI: PRONOUNS Personal, Demonstratives, Suffixes, Adverbials
VII: VERBS Prefixes, Negation, Aspect, Verb‐suffixes
VIII: CLAUSES Sentences, Active Verbs, Linking Verbs, Reflexive Verbs
IX: SYNTAX Word‐order, Connected Clauses, Relatives, Participials
X: COINAGES Compounding, Suffixing, The Syllabificator
XI: EXAMPLES Example Sentences, Example Text
XII: LEXICON A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Ib – Notation

Originally these pages used Kirshenbaum ASCII‐IPA, but now that Unicode‐capable browsers are standard I've switched over to a more up‐to‐date scheme: square brackets [like this] indicate IPA pronunciation guides and angle‐brackets like this indicate samples of the language itself in the standard spelling (though those angles won't be visible if your browser is ignoring my CSS).

“The standard spelling” in this case means a transcription in the Roman alphabet.  For the further convenience of learners, raised dots are inserted to help keep prefixes and suffixes visually distinct, as in man·ulasu·ap “I don't know”.  Remember, though: dividing the words up like this is a feature of this guide, not part of the “real‐life” writing system that would be used in a translated text.

The language doesn't have an alphabet of its own – I produced a fantasy writing system to go with it, but since it was only “suggested” rather than a definite part of the package, and since in retrospect the particular letter‐forms I used weren't terribly exciting, I'll leave it out here.  Suffice it to say that it was a Devanagari‐style syllable‐based script (an “abugida”), where squiggle‐with‐accent means ki, squiggle‐without‐accent means ka, and squiggle‐with‐dot means a k with no following vowel.

Ic – Terminology

For those of you with a hazy understanding of all this stuff about prenounial verbundives, here's a very basic quick‐reference guide, incorporating a key to the abbreviations used in section XII, the lexicon.

A
the marker used in the lexicon to label Adjectives (see Va)
ADJECTIVE
“describing words” like “quick” or “red”
ADJUNCT
a cover‐term for adjectives and adverbs (the “Adjuncts” section also covers postpositions and possessives)
ADVERB
“modifying words” like “quickly”, “soon”, or “hardly” (not a separate category in this language)
ASPECT
a feature of verbs – obscure, but vaguely like tense (see VIIc)
C
the marker used in the lexicon to label Coordinating conjunctions (see IXb) or interjections
CASE
“roles” in a sentence – the difference between “he” and “him” (see IVb)
CLAUSE
a phrase that includes a verb (see VIII)
CONJUNCTION
a “joining word” like “and”, “but”, “if”, or “because”
CONSONANT
a “hard sound” like “K”, “N”, “TH” (compare “vowel”, below)
COORDINATING
simply tacking clauses together – “and he ran and he ran”; compare Subordinating
D
the marker used in the lexicon to label Demonstrative words (see VIb)
DEMONSTRATIVE
“pointing words” like “this”, “those”
DIPHTHONG
a combination of vowel sounds strung together in one syllable
E
the marker used in the lexicon to label Epicene nouns/pronouns (see IVa)
EPICENE
a particular gender category in this language
FIRST‐EXCLUSIVE
a particular person category in this language
FIRST‐INCLUSIVE
a particular person category in this language
GENDER
the difference betwen “he” and “it” (see IVa)
I
the marker used in the lexicon to label Intransitive verbs (see VIIIb)
IMPERFECTIVE
a particular aspect category in this language
INFINITIVE
equivalent of English “to” verbs – “to be”, “to see”
INTRANSITIVE
verbs with no object, like “die”, “wait”, etc.
L
the marker used in the lexicon to label Linking verbs (see VIIIc)
LINKING
verbs that can introduce descriptions, like “be”, “seem”, etc.
M
the marker used in the lexicon to label Modifiers (see Vb)
MODIFIER
a catch‐all term for adverbs and miscellaneous words like “too”, “not”
N
the marker used in the lexicon to label Neuter nouns (see IVa)
NEUTER
a particular gender category in this language
NOUN
“naming words” like “king”, “horses”, “hunger”
NUMBER
the difference between singular and plural (see IIIa)
OBJECT
a (noun in a) particular case category in this language
OBLIQUE
a (noun in a) particular case category in this language
P
the marker used in the lexicon to label Postpositions (see Vc)
PASSIVE
the “be done by” form of a verb – see reflexive
PERFECTIVE
a particular aspect category in this language
PERSON
the difference between “we”, “you”, and “they” (see IIIb)
PHRASE
any number of words acting as a grammatical unit
PLURAL
a special form for more‐than‐one in English grammar
POSSESSIVE
phrases like “the man's hat” or “the hat of the man”
POSTPOSITION
this language's backwards alternative to prepositions
PREFIX
something stuck on the front – e.g. “un‐” (or “pre‐”)
PREPOSITION
words like “before” (“before a noun”), normally expressing location or direction
PRONOUN
“we”, “it”, etc., stand‐ins for specific nouns or names
R
the marker used in the lexicon to label Reflexivising verbs (see VIIId)
REFLEXIVE
verbs of “doing something to oneself” (or “to each other”)
REFLEXIVISING
verbs in this language that have a transitive form and a reflexive form
RELATIVE
a rather tricky clause type (which this is an example of)
S
the marker used in the lexicon to label Subordinating conjunctions (see IXb)
SECOND‐FAMILIAR
a particular person category in this language
SECOND‐POLITE
a particular person category in this language
SENTENCE
a complete utterance, from capital letter to full stop
SUBJECT
a (noun in a) particular case category in this language
SUBJUNCTIVE
a verb‐form with emotive or hypothetical overtones
SUBORDINATING
nesting clauses inside others – “someone (who knows (what it is))”; compare Coordinating
SUFFIX
a stuck‐on ending (opposite of “prefix”)
SYLLABLE
a breath‐unit (“syll‐a‐ble”), most obvious in singing where each syllable is a beat
T
the marker used in the lexicon to label Transitive verbs (see VIIIb)
TENSE
in English grammar, marking on a verb to indicate when it happens
THIRD‐EPICENE
a particular person category in this language
THIRD‐NEUTER
a particular person category in this language
TRANSITIVE
verbs requiring an object, like “slay”, “await”, etc.
VERB
“doing words” like “be”, “sang”, “eats”
VOWEL
a non‐consonant sound, like “AH”, “EE”, “U”