For a key to the abbreviations used in column three, see the Glossary.

XIIa – A to Away

a/an see “one”; usually omitted
able see “can”, “susceptible”, “worthy”
above geral P
across foni P
afraid jait A; “I'm afraid”, sajan·ap — jait·a
after (in time) naithin P
again/another time dakoku M
against/versus rurcha P
air entich N
all/the whole iasomma A; cf. “every”
almost khetan M
alone empin A; cf. “only”
already (past‑marker) tuker M
also/as well daka M; cf. “extra”
although meluba S
always (continuously) etap M; also an A meaning “eternal”
always (each time) ukosomma M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId
am see “be”
and ta C
and then tep C
angry khepartha A; cf. “afraid”
another see either “extra” or “other”
anyone/anything/any old seach D; see demonstratives, VIb
are see “be”
arm gara N; shoulder to fingertip
around/on all sides of emirdin P
as see “because”/“equally”/“than”/“during”
ask (questions) thulakhi T; person asked is object case
at (time)/on (occasion) raua P
at/near (place) ochan P
attention! ¡ ágou·ot ! F, from “pay attention”, ágou, I
aunt see “uncle”
away from nom P

XIIb – Back to By

back (to the start) giath M
bad chofe A; “worse” chofe bei
be/equal (essential) re L; see VIIc
be/equal (transitory) khoi L; see VIIc
beautiful akin A
because alba S
become/get akhe L
beer/ale gutho N
before (in time) nesiet P
begin daimpi I
behind kechas P
believe namfoar T
belly/stomach defaim N
belong to fakan T; “it's the king's” ji·da fakan·es
beneath see “under”
beside thun P
between/among leafot P
beyond/the far side of irdinau P
big jorda A
bird sotanja N
bite ilunsu T
black enjeik A
blood kethau N
blue (or green) adi A; cf. “green”
bone tuthoro N
born, be (draw breath) ganam I; active, like “hatch”
boy/young man antopa E
bread naúk N
break/get broken dortila R
bring/convey tipera + u T; see bidirectionals, Vc
brother saerra E; but see below
brother, elder kakirra E
burn/get burned arnu R
but/however silal C
buy/trade eota + or T; see bidirectionals, Vc
by (with passive) ie P

XIIc – Called to Cut

called, be jinkemo L
can/be able to soin I; “I can't” me·soin·ap
careful/cautious thoienim A
cat apas N
catch/capture liamkar T
cheap tearik A
child/son/daughter dijarla E
clean romao A
close/nearby tefaoch A
close/shut dumfu T
cloud chelom N
cold irrikhe A; “it's cold” urjun — irrikhe·ra
come/travel ana + u/or I; see bidirectionals, Vc
continue/keep …ing sunu I
cook tulado T
cost/price keabei N; “it costs X” keabei·s (re·s) X
cousin feiton E
cut/slice uemi T

XIId – Dark to During

dark okhanda A
daughter see “child”
day/hours of daylight urjun N
day/period of 24 hours giara N
destroy/disintegrate kathaku R
die sifulu I
different/other okuth D; see demonstratives, VIb
difficult jammares A
dirty guoruchu A
do/act acha I; “you behaved badly” chofe acha·ton
dog saiók N
door terat N
down/downwards uduth M
draw mututa T
dream of/imagine elisilu T
drink efoi T
dry kueche A
during iepe P; cf. “while”

XIIe – Ear to Eye

ear mudos N
earth/ground isija N
easy suodanut A
eat niamo T
egg ach N
eight botu A; see IIIc
eleven (ten‑and‑one) ik‐t‐emme A; see numbers, IIIc
else‐(where, etc.) see “different”
empty thias A
enough (of something) napa D; “enough beer” napa·ra gutho
enough/sufficiently nápa M; “big enough” jorda nápa
equally/as (X as) simbu M; “as big” jorda simbu
even puete M
everything/everyone sumfa D; see demonstratives, VIb
exist/there is tur I; see VIIIc
expensive thaselai A
extra daka A; cf. “also”
eye reisen N

XIIf – False to Full

false/dishonest lisoul A; see “wrong”
far/distant apuasan A
fast see “quick”
father tánne E
few/not much mefei A; “less” mefei bei
finger fidimu N
finish iatas I; plus infinitive
fire éria N
first emme bei A; see numbers, IIIc
fish barin N
five panai A; see numbers, IIIc
flat kanorsu A
fly raman I
foot monkha N
for (to the benefit of) dede P
forest teieth N
four thamme A; see numbers, IIIc
fraction, one‑Xth uanche N; see “half”
friend arkhan E
from/out of or P
full adusul A

XIIg – Garment to Greet

garment/clothing serenko N
girl/young woman enoki E
give/transfer fáru + u T; see bidirectionals, Vc
go/travel ana + u/or I; see bidirectionals, Vc
gold khir N
good ous A; “better” ous bei
goodbye ¡ ousanaut ! F; i.e. “go well”
grandparent ukalki E
green theradi A; considered a shade of blue
greet/welcome anuach T; see “hello”

XIIh – Hair to Husband

hair (head of) diomkas N
half rukuanche N
hand lanjei N
happy toar A; cf. “afraid”
hard/tough tindal A; see “difficult”
have no such word; see “belong”, “lack”
he (or she) i E; see personal pronouns, VIa
head alsala N
hear uitopas T
heart sajan N
heavy karegon A
hello! ¡ utonnuáchap ! F; “I‐greet‐you”
help fasimfe T
her see “she”
here nullu M; see demonstratives, VId
hill onthao N
him see “he”
his see pronoun suffixes, VIc
hold/keep jeit T
hole/gap surrosi N
horse kéntha N
hot udomi A
house/home lul N
how many/how much fatemaf M
hundred ajakh A
husband kuachou E; or see “spouse”

XIIi – I to It

I pa E; see “we”
ice tekea N
if duo S; see IXb
ill/unwell/sore piakar A
in front of irset P
in place of kaummo P
inside/in ámbi P
intend/plan to serau T
into/in uambi P
iron panthoin N
is see “be”
island emisija N
it is N; see personal pronouns, VIa

XIIj – Just

just/recently ker M; cf. “already” (see also “only”)

XIIk – Keep to Know

keep see “continue” or “hold”
kill sueker T
king ji E
knee gataje N
know ulasu T

XIIl – Lack to Love

lack/have no techan T
land/nation nikhom N
language erepith N
last/final papal bei A
left(‐hand) nankorga A
leg ianúr N; hip to toetip
let/permit pilka T
lie/be recumbent bima R
lie/falsehood see “false”
light/not dark sompoakh A
light/not heavy piduena A
like/admire ralder T
like/similar to charcha P
little see “few”, “small”
live/be alive tharko I
long/lengthy unkodor A
look/seem/appear udoso L
love immala T

XIIm – Magic to My

magic ouila N
make/create anthok T
make/render/cause (to) epa T; “soften it!” ¡ is epa· dofoch·a !
man/adult male kua E
many/much/lots champeti A
market touortal N
may/be allowed to theinge I; “you may not” me·theinge·ton
me see “I”
meal kornaus N
mean/translate as loimtar L
meet/meet up ikufia R
might/be possible fosura I; “it couldn't” me·fosura·s
milk rabu N
moon/month nijaije N
mother ómme E
mountain theluka N
mouth dalda N
move ajal T
much see “many” or intensives, Va
must/be necessary odoim I; “you needn't” mi·odoim·oton
my see pronoun suffixes, VIc

XIIn – Name to Now

name jinkeus N
neck taurrak N
never ukome M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId
new tiomfe A
next to tunchap P
night ligunte N
nine sachaso A; see numbers, IIIc
no! ¡ muarre ! F; see XIVb
no longer metachine M; cf. “still”
no‐one/nothing/none me D; see demonstratives, VIb
nose terthata N
not yet metuker M; cf. “already”
now ukollu M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId

XIIo – Of to Outside

of no such word; see possessives, Vd
off/from on nal P
often chamuko M
old/not new khoedok A
old/not young ordara A
on/upon ma P
one emme A; see numbers, IIIc
only empin M; cf. “alone”
onto uma P
open/set ajar fafale R
opposite/facing irdincha P
or ak C
order/command (that) ortothi I
other see “different”
our see pronoun suffixes, VIc
out of/from inside ukhamfi P
outside khámfi P

XIIp – Parent to Put (on)

parent fikalki E
part/piece/bit sature N
perhaps tioan M
person/people keufe E
please!/excuse me! jejale F
poor/penniless nutuekh A
priest korto E; irregular: see IVd
put/place jika T
put on/don (garment) sorari T

XIIq – Quarter to Quiet

quarter/one‑fourth thammeuanche N
quick giroi A
quiet gudarom A

XIIr – Rain to Run

rain arbili N
read rildil T
ready thachamu A
receive/transfer fáru + or T; see bidirectionals, Vc
red bagar A
rich rafaus A
right(‐hand) aukorga A
right/accurate dokil A; see “true”
ring/annulet posaga N
river deat N
road/path iathir N
room/chamber umfoun N
run jóra I

XIIs – Sad to Sword

sad/unhappy búrkhora A; see “afraid”
safe/secure tiriltha A
salt tonoch N
same/same one emmeth D; see demonstratives, VIb
say (that) arfai I
sea togo N
second/following ruk bei A
see numa T
seldom mefeuko M
sell/trade eota + u T; see bidirectionals, Vc
seven iro A; see numbers, IIIc
shadow lefichi N
she (or he) i E; see personal pronouns, VIa
shield alchop N
ship enkati N
short rofan A
should/be meant to apeso I; “we shouldn't” mi·apeso·m
since deior M
sing nena I
sister fionno E; but see following
sister, elder amirru E
sit down/be  seated onte R
six fonei A; see numbers, IIIc
sleep bafanke I
slow tunthalá A
small tian A
smoke felsante N
snow cheima N
so that/in order that lemmo S
so (X that) fatemach M; see “that/to”
soft dofoch A
some/several lo A; irregular: see IIIa
some/someone/something e D; see demonstratives, VIb
son see “child”, “boy”
soon/imminent future ankat M
speak/talk desen I
spirit/soul iafach N
spouse kichou E
stand up/be stood sinche R
star tésien N
still/even now tachine M
stone/rock jabaine N
strong rasek N
sun mogal N
susceptible to X, X‑able afosa A; thus “eatable” niamoafosa
swim nempai I
sword deira N

XIIt – Take (away) to Two

take away/convey tipera + or T; see bidirectionals, Vc
take off/doff (garment) puaram T
tall molnie A
ten ikh (or ik‑) A; see numbers, IIIc
than/as/compared to charpam P; “than me” charpam·ap
that/that one/those che or uo D; see demonstratives, VIb
that/(the one) who see “,which” or under participials, IXc
that/to sirrop S; after “so much”/“too much”
that (“say that”) omitted (use direct quote)
the omitted
their see pronoun suffixes, VIc
them see they
then/at that time ukoch or ukouo M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId
there/at that place nuch or nouo M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId
there is/are/was/were see “exist”
therefore darach or daruo M; see demonstrative adverbs, VId
these see “this”
they (l·a) is or (lo) i N or E; see personal pronouns, VIa
third/number three chu bei A
third/one‑third chouánche N
this/this one/these illu D; see demonstratives, VIb
those see “that”
thousand, ten‑hundred ik‐ajakh A; see numbers, IIIc
three chu A; see numbers, IIIc
through utol P
to/up to u P; irregular: see Vc
to (after “too much”) see “that/to”
to do X no “to” required; see infinitives, VIId
today/this day giarallu N
tomorrow/the next day giaraith N
tongue dánjel N
too (much) beit M; “too big” jorda beit
tooth nantem N
town kuoise N
tree atach N
true/honest pietham A; cf. “right”
try to oas I
twelve/ten‑and‑two ik‐ta‐ruk A; see numbers, IIIc
twenty/two tens ruk‐ikh A; see numbers, IIIc
two ruk A; see numbers, IIIc

XIIu – Uncle to Using

uncle/aunt rokhon E
under/beneath duthan P
understand asau T
until deiu P
up/upwards ugeral M
us see “we”
using/with akesa P

XIIv – Very

very see “much”

XIIw – Wait to Wrong

wait (for)/await pasano T; “wait for me!” ¡ pa·da pasano !
walk pe I
want moek T
warrior pakhen E
was see “be”
wash gitenta T
water taís N
way/manner dasa N
we (lo) pa or (lo) úma E; see personal pronouns, VIa
weak thalatan A
wear/have on nafar T
well/healthy líathuk A
were see “be”
wet daindut A
which?/who?/what? ¿ fe ? D; see questions, VIIId
,which/,who/,that e D; see relative clauses, IXd
while iepe S; cf. “during”
white chargi A
wife farochou E; or see “spouse”
wind/breeze akup N
with/together with nuchar P; cf. “using”
without sarla P
woman faro E; irregular: see IVd
wood/timber foantus N
word aracho N
work/make an effort to khájue I
world siburel N
worthy of X, X‑able kimui A; e.g. “edible” niamokimui
write/inscribe karketh T
wrong/inaccurate gorago A; see “false”

XIIx – Xenon to Xylophone

just kidding

XIIy – Year to Your

year moulakh N
yellow/orange chunates A
yes/indeed uarde F
yesterday/day before giaroset N
yonder/that there uo D; see demonstratives, VIb
you na or uton E; see personal pronouns, VIa
young thíen A
your see pronoun suffixes, VIc

XIIz – Zero

zero see “none”